Table 4: Summary of multivariate logistic regression models examining AFE to football and clinically meaningful scores on measures of behavior, mood and cognitive function

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

214 Former American football players
 AFE dichotomized (1, <12; 0, 12)Continuous AFE
Clinical testsOR95% CIPAdj. PaOR95% CIPAdj. Pa
BRIEF-A BRI2.161.19, 3.910.0110.0160.890.79, 1.010.080.10
BRIEF-A MI2.101.17, 3.760.0130.0160.890.78, 1.000.050.09
BTACT1.430.46, 4.410.540.540.940.75, 1.180.620.62
AES2.391.32, 4.320.0040.0100.860.76, 0.970.0140.046
CES-D3.081.65, 5.76<0.0010.0020.850.74, 0.970.0180.046
  1. Abbreviations: Adj, adjusted; AES, Apathy Evaluation Scale; AFE, age of first exposure; BRI, Behavioral Regulation Index; BRIEF-A, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BTACT, Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI, confidence interval; MI, Metacognition Index; OR, odds ratio.
  2. Clinical tests were dichotomized into impaired or not impaired using established cutoffs; higher scores reflect clinical impairment. Analyses adjusted for age, years of education and seasons of football play. A factor of 100 was applied to the BTACT to facilitate model fit.
  3. aP-values are adjusted for multiple comparisons via the false discovery rate method. The bold is used for those P values that are significant.