Table 3: Summary of linear mixed-effects models examining AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognitive function

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

214 Former American football players
Clinical testsAFE dichotomized (1, <12; 0, 12)AFE continuous
 Est95% CIPAdj. PaEst95% CIPAdj. Pa
BRIEF-A BRI7.653.54, 11.76<0.0010.001−1.35−2.20, −0.500.0020.008
BRIEF-A MI5.501.19, 9.800.0130.016−0.99−1.88, −0.110.0280.035
BTACT−12.26−38.18, 13.650.350.352.00−3.33, 7.340.460.46
AES5.102.04, 8.150.0010.002−0.93−1.56, −0.300.0040.008
CES-D7.293.38, 11.21<0.0010.001−1.17−1.98, −0.360.0050.008
  1. Abbreviations: Adj, adjusted; AES, Apathy Evaluation Scale; AFE, age of first exposure; BRI, Behavioral Regulation Index; BRIEF-A, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BTACT, Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI, confidence interval; Est, estimate; MI, Metacognition Index.
  2. All clinical tests were examined as continuous variables. Lower scores on the BTACT and higher scores on the BRIEF-A subtests, AES and CES-D reflect worse clinical function. Analyses adjusted for age, years of education and seasons of football play. A factor of 100 was applied to the BTACT to facilitate model fit.
  3. aP-values are adjusted for multiple comparisons via the false discovery rate method. The bold is used for those P values that are significant.