Table 2: Clinical test performance

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

TestTotal sample (N=214)AFE <12 (n=101)AFE12 (n=113)
 Mean (s.d.)n (%), ImpairedMean (s.d.)n (%), ImpairedMean (s.d.)n (%), Impaired
BRIEF-A BRIa64.11 (15.16)94 (44.1)67.01 (14.79)51 (50.5)61.50 (15.07)43 (38.4)
BRIEF-A MI64.71 (15.54)103 (48.1)66.66 (14.73)55 (54.5)62.97 (16.09)48 (42.5)
BTACTa−0.20 (0.90)15 (7.0)−0.31 (0.87)8 (7.9)−0.11 (0.92)7 (6.3)
AES34.15 (11.05)97 (45.3)36.42 (10.85)56 (55.4)32.12 (10.88)41 (36.3)
CES-D20.24 (14.48)117 (54.7)23.25 (13.85)67 (66.3)17.55 (14.57)50 (44.2)
  1. Abbreviations: AES, Apathy Evaluation Scale; AFE, age of first exposure; BRI, Behavioral Regulation Index; BRIEF-A, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BTACT, Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; MI, Metacognition Index.
  2. % impaired includes those who scored above empirically derived cutoff scores that reflect clinical impairment, which includes: CES-D16, AES34, BRIEF-A BRI and MI65, and BTACT−1.5. BRIEF-A subtests are T-scores and BTACT are age- and gender-adjusted bi-factor scores.
  3. aN=213 in the overall sample because of missing data.