Figure 3

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

Figure 3

Age of first exposure to American football and reported symptoms of depression in 214 former American football players. Figure presents the results of the linear mixed-effect analyses that showed that those who began playing American football before age 12 exhibited worse (on average) scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), P=0.001. Higher scores represent greater reported symptoms of depression. The circle represents the mean and the horizontal line is the median. The mean group differences were significant after controlling for age, education and total seasons of football play.