Figure 2

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

Figure 2

Age of first exposure to American football and reported symptoms of apathy in 214 former American football players. Figure presents the results of the linear mixed-effect analyses that showed that those who began playing American football before age 12 exhibited worse (on average) scores on the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), P=0.002. Higher scores represent greater reported symptoms of apathy. The circle represents the mean and the horizontal line is the median. The mean group differences were significant after controlling for age, education and total seasons of football play.