Figure 1

From: Age of first exposure to American football and long-term neuropsychiatric and cognitive outcomes

Figure 1

Age of first exposure to American football and reported symptoms of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction in 214 former American football players. Figure presents the results of the linear mixed-effect analyses that showed that those who began playing American football before age 12 exhibited worse (on average) scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI; P=0.001) and BRIEF-A Metacognition Index (MI; P=0.016). Higher scores represent worse reported clinical function. The circle represents the mean and the horizontal line is the median. The mean group differences were significant after controlling for age, education and total seasons of football play.