Table 3 Comparison of externalizing behaviors and academic function between recent-onset depression, persistent depression and no past-year depression groups for males and female subjectsa

From: Sex differences in recent first-onset depression in an epidemiological sample of adolescents

  Males Females
  Recent onset (%) Persistent (%) No depression (%) Recent onset (%) Persistent (%) No depression (%)
Conduct problems
 Gotten into a serious fight at school/work 33.2 31.1 21.4 25.9 26.0 13.7
 Taken part in fight where group fought another group 21.2 18.5 12.7 16.7 15.9 9.9
 Carried a handgun 7.8 7.1 5.3 1.3 2.2 1.2
 Sold illegal drugs 6.0 7.1 3.6 2.5 4.9 1.4
 Stolen or tried to steal anything worth >$50 8.7 11.1 4.1 4.2 6.7 2.0
 Attacked someone w/intent to seriously hurt them 16.9 18.4 6.4 9.6 12.0 3.7
 Two or more conduct problems 25.8 25.5 12.4 15.3 17.2 6.8
Academic functioning
 School work meaningful=seldom, never 35.8 41.6 19.6 30.8 33.4 16.2
 Importance of learning=somewhat/very unimportant 23.0 28.2 12.3 21.1 24.5 11.0
 Interesting courses=somewhat/very boring 32.9 36.0 20.9 35.2 36.5 19.5
 Teacher say doing a good job=seldom, never 31.4 38.7 19.4 32.9 33.9 18.7
 Grades for the last semester C or lower 38.0 33.3 28.2 28.3 28.8 18.2
 Three or more indicators of poor academic functioning 23.1 28.5 11.9 21.5 23.4 9.4
  1. aStatistical tests were conducted using logistic regression models with P=0.05. Proportions are significantly higher in the recent first-onset and persistent categories than in the no-depression category for all indicators with the following three exceptions: (1) carried a handgun does not differ between recent first-onset and no-depression groups among female subjects (P=0.6401); (2) carried a handgun does not differ between persistent and no-depression groups for males (P=0.0655); and (3) grades in the last semester C or lower does not differ between the persistent and no-depression groups for males (P=0.0653). Figures in bold indicate statistically significant differences between the recent-onset and persistent groups.