The raw data of smartphone use for one day. (a) The blue highlighting indicates a use epoch, which starts with the screen-on (from 13:13:23) and ends with the screen-off (13:24:26). The duration of this use epoch is 663 s. The red highlighting indicates an adjacent non-use epoch, which starts with the screen-off (from 13:24:26) and ends with the screen-on (13:46:28). The duration of this non-use epoch is 1322 s. (b) One-day of raw data obtained from a non-addictive subject as identified by the psychiatrist: First, we excluded the non-use epoch associated with sleep time. The black epoch is the sleep time, which starts with the screen-off (from 01:48:41) and ends with the screen-on (06:15:00). After this exclusion, there are 35 non-use epochs in this day (non-use frequency=35) with the total duration of the 35 non-use epochs being 48 527 s. Among the 35 non-use epochs, the epoch with the median duration is magnified in (A), that is, the non-use-median duration is 1322 s. (c) The non-use frequency of an addictive subject who has a non-use frequency of 231, a non-use duration of 55 557 s and a non-use-median of 304 s. Similar to the non-addictive subject, we have excluded the black epoch of sleep time, which starts with the screen-off (from 02:23:46) and ends with the screen-on (06:10:00).