Neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and related signaling pathway proteins. (a and b) Immunoblotting of hippocampal and cortical tissue derived from the behaviorally tested animals. (a) (−)Epicatechin (EC)-consuming animals evinced significantly greater expression of pro-BDNF and BDNF proteins in the hippocampus. (b) Growth factor levels did not change in the cortex. (c and d) EC increased the expression of pAkt in the hippocampus and cortex with respect to the control group. (e and f) Neither pERK2 nor pCREB levels were modified by the intake of EC in the hippocampus and cortex. (*P<0.05). Error bars denote s.e.m.