Table 8: Percentage of elements detected and Ca/P ratio in dugong tusks, and dugong, dolphin and whale teeth.

From: Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species

Ele.Dugong tusksDugong teethDolphin teethWhale toothp-value
Al0.266 ± 0.1900.317 ± 0.084N.D.N.D.N.D.
Si1.114 ± 1.253a0.373 ± 0.212a0.178 ± 0.037b0.465 ± 0.174a0.000
P8.052 ± 1.714a7.559 ± 1.219b9.286 ± 0.617c8.119 ± 0.811a,b0.000
S0.316 ± 0.418a0.086 ± 0.039b0.049 ± 0.032c0.271 ± 0.071d0.000
Ca23.510 ± 3.441a21.217 ± 1.910b20.233 ± 1.540c22.798 ± 0.924d0.004
Ti0.057 ± 0.044a0.047 ± 0.020b0.052 ± 0.011c0.036 ± 0.010a,b0.020
V0.018 ± 0.004a0.017 ± 0.005a0.013 ± 0.003b0.014 ± 0.002a,b0.010
Cr0.012 ± 0.018a0.009 ± 0.002b0.007 ± 0.002c0.010 ± 0.001d0.000
Mn0.012 ± 0.021a0.058 ± 0.089b0.015 ± 0.008c0.008 ± 0.001a0.000
Fe0.039 ± 0.030a0.097 ± 0.065b0.072 ± 0.032b0.019 ± 0.002c0.003
Ni0.002 ± 0.0010.002 ± 0.0010.002 ± 0.0000.002 ± 0.0000.789
Cu0.006 ± 0.010a0.002 ± 0.000b0.002 ± 0.000b0.002 ± 0.000b0.002
Zn0.040 ± 0.013a0.038 ± 0.017b0.094 ± 0.029c0.035 ± 0.009b,d0.000
Zr0.014 ± 0.002a0.014 ± 0.003b0.002 ± 0.000c0.008 ± 0.002 a,c0.000
Ag0.018 ± 0.003a0.017 ± 0.004a0.014 ± 0.002b0.015 ± 0.001a,b0.003
Cd0.023 ± 0.006a0.023 ± 0.005a0.017 ± 0.004b0.021 ± 0.001a0.000
Sn0.026 ± 0.007a0.027 ± 0.006a0.019 ± 0.005b0.023 ± 0.001a,b0.000
Sb0.034 ± 0.009a0.034 ± 0.007a0.025 ± 0.007b0.032 ± 0.001a,c0.000
W0.004 ± 0.0010.003 ± 0.001N.D.0.004 ± 0.0000.064
Pb0.001 ± 0.0010.001 ± 0.0010.001 ± 0.0000.001 ± 0.0000.365
LE66.702 ± 5.382a70.013 ± 2.823b69.942 ± 2.098b68.123 ± 1.603a,b0.000
Ca/P2.984 ± 0.421a2.862 ± 0.422b2.179 ± 0.075c2.825 ± 0.247a,b,d0.000
  1. Bold numbers indicate significantly higher values. N.D. = not detected. Al = aluminum, Si = silicon, P = phosphorus, S = sulfur, Ca = calcium, Ti = titanium, V = vanadium, Cr = chromium, Mn = manganese, Fe = iron, Ni = nickel, Cu = copper, Zn = zinc, Zr = zirconium, Ag = silver, Cd = cadmium, Sn = tin, Sb = antimony, W = tungsten, Pb = lead, LE = light elements. a,b,c,d indicate a significant difference at p < 0.05 when compared across dugong tusks, and dugong, dolphin and whale teeth.