Table 1 Age Estimates, Defining Mutations, and Distribution Ranges of Haplogroup U7 and Its Subclades.

From: Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

Clade Defining Mutations Geographic Region Age Estimates (kya)
Rho Complete Rho Synonymous BEAST, Corrected
U7 T152C, T980C, C3741T, C5360T, C8137T, C8684T, C10142T, T13500C, G14569A, A16309G, A16318t All together 18.6 (13.6–23.7) 15.6 (11.0–20.3) 17.3 (13.6–21.3)
Near East 15.4 (11.9–19.3)
South Asia 15.6 (12.2–19.7)
Europe 13.2 (9.3–13.2)
Central Asia 16.3 (11.2–22.8)
U7a C151T All together 18.7 (14.9–22.7) 19.2 (11.4–26.9) 18.2 (14.2–23.2)
Near East 15.3 (11.5–19.3)
South Asia 17.0 (12.6–21.9)
Europe 17.1 (11.0–23.9)
Central Asia 17.3 (12.0–24.1)
U7b T10084C All together 10.0 (7.3–12.7) 6.7 (3.7–9.8) 10.1 (7.3–13.1)
Near East 11.6 (8.2–15.5)
South Asia 10.9 (7.1–15.5)
Europe 9.6 (6.3–13.3)
U7c C14131T South Asia 5.9 (2.8 to 9.1) 7.2 (1.0 to 13.3)
U7d T11365C, C16150T Near East 7.9 (1.7 to 14.4) 7.9 (−2.9 to 18.7)
U7e G1709A Near East 2.1 (−1.0 to 5.2) 1.6 (−1.5 to 4.7)
U7f G13368A, G16390A Near East 9.7 (2.9 to 16.8) 5.3 (−2.5 to 13.0)
  1. Mutations were scored relative to the root of haplogroup U. Coalescence times were estimated with three methods – ρ whole-mtDNA clock, ρ synonymous clock, and Bayesian estimation. They are expressed in thousand years ago. 95% confidence intervals for ρ-based estimates as well as 95% HPD intervals for BEAST estimates are given in parentheses. For U7, U7a, and U7b Bayesian analyses were carried out also with region-specific sequences.