Table 1: Age Estimates, Defining Mutations, and Distribution Ranges of Haplogroup U7 and Its Subclades.

From: Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

CladeDefining MutationsGeographic RegionAge Estimates (kya)
Rho CompleteRho SynonymousBEAST, Corrected
U7T152C, T980C, C3741T, C5360T, C8137T, C8684T, C10142T, T13500C, G14569A, A16309G, A16318tAll together18.6 (13.6–23.7)15.6 (11.0–20.3)17.3 (13.6–21.3)
Near East15.4 (11.9–19.3)
South Asia15.6 (12.2–19.7)
Europe13.2 (9.3–13.2)
Central Asia16.3 (11.2–22.8)
U7aC151TAll together18.7 (14.9–22.7)19.2 (11.4–26.9)18.2 (14.2–23.2)
Near East15.3 (11.5–19.3)
South Asia17.0 (12.6–21.9)
Europe17.1 (11.0–23.9)
Central Asia17.3 (12.0–24.1)
U7bT10084CAll together10.0 (7.3–12.7)6.7 (3.7–9.8)10.1 (7.3–13.1)
Near East11.6 (8.2–15.5)
South Asia10.9 (7.1–15.5)
Europe9.6 (6.3–13.3)
U7cC14131TSouth Asia5.9 (2.8 to 9.1)7.2 (1.0 to 13.3)
U7dT11365C, C16150TNear East7.9 (1.7 to 14.4)7.9 (−2.9 to 18.7)
U7eG1709ANear East2.1 (−1.0 to 5.2)1.6 (−1.5 to 4.7)
U7fG13368A, G16390ANear East9.7 (2.9 to 16.8)5.3 (−2.5 to 13.0)
  1. Mutations were scored relative to the root of haplogroup U. Coalescence times were estimated with three methods – ρ whole-mtDNA clock, ρ synonymous clock, and Bayesian estimation. They are expressed in thousand years ago. 95% confidence intervals for ρ-based estimates as well as 95% HPD intervals for BEAST estimates are given in parentheses. For U7, U7a, and U7b Bayesian analyses were carried out also with region-specific sequences.