Table 1 Demographic information, motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms of TD and PIGD groups.

From: Phenotype of postural instability/gait difficulty in Parkinson disease: relevance to cognitive impairment and mechanism relating pathological proteins and neurotransmitters

  Total PD patients TD group PIGD group P value
(520 cases) (309 cases) (211 cases)
Age (years, mean ± SD) 61.37 ± 10.14 61.22 ± 0.38 61.73 ± 9.668 0.54
Age of onset (years, mean ± SD) 57.57 ± 11.03 57.66 ± 10.9 57.47 ± 10.92 0.84
Male/Total [cases/total (%)] 279/520(53.65) 158/309(51.13) 121/211(57.35) 0.80
Disease duration (years, mean ± SD) 3.91 ± 4.69 3.62 ± 3.79 4.46 ± 5.49 0.11
Education (N, %) 0.10
 Primary school and below 154/520(29.62) 98/309(31.72) 56/211(26.54)  
 Middle and high school 259/520(49.81) 154/309(49.84) 105/211(49.76)  
 Bachelor’s degree and above 107/520(20.58) 57/309(18.45) 50/211(23.70)  
Hoehn-Yahr stage (N, %) 0.041*
 Stage 0–1 108/520(20.77) 64/309(20.71) 44/211(20.85) 0.527
 Stage 2 229/520(44.04) 148/309(47.90) 81/211(38.39) 0.038*
 Stage 3 165/520(31.73) 94/309(30.42) 71/211(33.65) 0.248
 Stage 4–5 18/520(3.46) 3/309(0.97) 15/211(7.11) 0.000**
UPDRS III (years, mean ± SD) 25.97 ± 13.83 25.50 ± 12.93 27.49 ± 14.5 0.12
 Tremor 5.48 ± 3.74 6.67 ± 3.76 3.66 ± 2.56 0.00**
 Rigidity 5.73 ± 3.76 5.42 ± 3.64 6.08 ± 3.88 0.04*
 Bradykinesia 10.75 ± 6.55 10.05 ± 5.89 11.91 ± 7.11 0.00**
 Postural and gait abnormalities 4.18 ± 2.73 3.45 ± 2.05 5.22 ± 3.06 0.00**
Predominantly affected side (N, %) 0.11
 Left side predominantly affected 237/520(45.58) 142/309(45.95) 95/211(45.02)  
 Right side predominantly affected 283/520(54.42) 167/309(54.05) 116/211(54.98)  
MoCA (scores, mean ± SD) 21.35 ± 6.11 21.51 ± 6.39 21.02 ± 6.59 0.28
Levodopa equivalent dose (LED) (mg, mean ± SD) 321.76 ± 109.23 319.56 ± 109.67 324.13 ± 104.29 0.32
  1. TD = tremor-dominant; PIGD = postural instability/gait difficulty; UPDRS = Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; MoCA = Montreal Cognitive Assessment; P: TD group vs. PIGD group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.