Table 5 Average total weight values, average muscle weight and average calorie values for muscle weight of faunal and human species based on available data.

From: Assessing the calorific significance of episodes of human cannibalism in the Palaeolithic

Hominin/Fauna Average Total Weight (kg) Average Muscle Weight (kg)* Calorie/kg (muscle) Calorie Value (muscle)
Hominin (H. sapiens) 65.99 24.9 1300 32376
Mammoth (Mammuthus) 3000 1800 2000 3600000
Woolly Rhinoceros (Coelodonta/Stephanorhinus/Rhinoceros) 1200 720 1750 1260000
Aurochs (Bos) 800 480 2040 979200
Steppe Bison (Bison) 500 300 2040 612000
Cattle sp. (Bos) 300 180 2040 367200
Bear (Ursus) 250 150 4000 600000
Horse sp. (Equus) 290 174 1150 200100
Giant deer (Megaloceros/Eucladoceros) 220 132 1240 163680
Red deer (Cervus) 220 132 1240 163680
Musk-ox (Ovibos) 180 108 1300 140400
Deer sp. (Cervus/Dama) 160 96 1240 119040
Boar (Sus) 135 81 4000 324000
Reindeer (Rangifer) 100 60 1000 60000
Ibex (Capra) 70 42 1090 45780
Rupicapra (Rupicapra) 60 36 1045 37620
Saiga (Saiga) 45 31.5 1000 31500
Roe deer (Capreolus) 22 13.2 1000 13200
Beaver (Castor) 20 12 4000 48000
Hare sp. (Lepus) 6 3.6 1070 3852
Steppe marmot (Marmota) 1 0.6 3000 1800
Fish 1.25 1 1300 1300
Birds 1.25 1 2500 2500
  1. Faunal muscle and calorie values from52: 294, Table 5. 17 and references therein53: 174, Table 8, human muscle values from this study. All calorie values have been rounded to the nearest whole number. Giant deer (Megaloceros/Eucladoceros) estimated as red deer, and Deer sp. estimated as median between red deer and reindeer as per52. Ibex calorie per kg estimated the same as goat86; Rupicapra estimated as median between Ibex and Saiga; Roe deer calorie per kg estimated the same as Saiga. *Estimated as 60% of average total weight for mammals and 80% of average total weight for fish and birds after52,87. Carnivora species were excluded due to insufficient data on potential calorie sources per kg weight.