Figure 3: Microdamage characteristics. | Scientific Reports

Figure 3: Microdamage characteristics.

From: Long-term effects of bisphosphonate therapy: perforations, microcracks and mechanical properties

Figure 3

Median density (a,b), volume (c,d) and volume fraction (e,f) of perforations and microcracks in the non-fracture control (n = 5), fracture control (n = 5) and bisphosphonate therapy groups (n = 6). (a) The fracture group had the highest density of perforations at 3.92/mm3 across all groups but this was only significant compared to the non-fracture group (p = 0.005). (b) The bisphosphonate therapy group had a significantly higher microcrack density at 7.38/mm3 compared to the other two groups (fracture p = 0.007, non-fracture p = 0.012). (c) The fracture group had a significantly larger volume of perforations at 24863 μm3 compared to other two groups (bisphosphonate therapy p = 0.011, non-fracture p = 0.012). The bisphosphonate therapy group also showed a significantly higher volume of perforations at 15893 μm3 compared to the non-fracture group at 4220 μm3 (p = 0.019). (d) The bisphosphonate therapy group had the highest microcrack volume at 7173 μm3, which was significant compared to the non-fracture group (p = 0.001). The microcrack volume was also significantly lower in the non-fracture group than the fracture group (p = 0.004). (e) The fracture group had the greatest perforation volume fraction at 15.39 × 10−3%, which was significantly greater than both the bisphosphonate-treated group, which was 3.02 × 10−3% and non-fracture group, which was 0.50 × 10−3% (bisphosphonate therapy p = 0.013, non-fracture p = 0.001). (f) The bisphosphonate therapy group had the highest microcrack volume fraction at 11.03 × 10−3% (fracture p = 0.017, non-fracture p = 0.005). Statistically, microdamage data were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Asterisks denote significant pairwise differences at *p < 0.050, **p < 0.010 and ***p < 0.001.

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