Table 4 Definitions of 3D cephalometric landmarks and reference planes.

From: Three-dimensional surgical simulation improves the planning for correction of facial prognathism and asymmetry: A qualitative and quantitative study

Landmark Abbreviation Definition
Orbitale OrL
OrR
The most inferior point of left infraorbital rim
The most inferior point of right infraorbital rim
Porion PoL,
PoR
The highest points of the left external acoustic meatus
The highest points of the right external acoustic meatus
Average orbitale OrA Midpoint between the OrR and OrL.
Nasion N The middle point of the frontonasal suture
Anterior nasal spine ANS The most anterior midpoint of the anterior nasal spine of the maxilla
Point A A The innermost point on the contour of the premaxilla between ANS and U1
Point B B The innermost point on the contour of the mandible between bony chin and L1
Upper incisor U1 Midoint between the crowns of the maxillary central incisors
Lower incisor L1 Midpoint contact between the crowns of the mandibular central incisors.
Pogonion Pog The most anterior midpoint of the chin on the outline of the mandibular symphysis
Menton Me The most inferior midpoint of the chin on the outline of the mandibular symphysis.
Maxillary canine U3L
U3R
Cusp of the left maxillary canine
Cusp of the right maxillary canine
Mandibular canine L3L
L3R
Cusp tip of the left mandibular canine
Cusp tip of the right mandibular canine
First maxillary molar U6L
U6R
Mesio-buccal cusp of the left first maxillary molar
Mesio-buccal cusp of the right first maxillary molar
Lateral condyle point Cd latL
Cd latR
The most lateral point of left condyle head
The most lateral point of right condyle head
Lateral gonion Go latL
Go latR
The most lateral point of left gonion
The most lateral point of right gonion
Frankfort horizontal plane FH plane A plane passing PoL, PoR, and OrA
Coronal plane A plane perpendicular to FH plane, through right and left porion
Sagittal plane   A plane perpendicular to the FH and coronal planes, through nasion