Table 1 Absolute linear changes of landmarks in x, y, z axis between 2D plan and 3D plan (3D image models registered at the cranial base).

From: Three-dimensional surgical simulation improves the planning for correction of facial prognathism and asymmetry: A qualitative and quantitative study

Landmark X-axis Y-axis Z-axis
2D 3D Difference   2D 3D Difference   2D 3D Difference  
Mean(SD) Mean(SD) Mean(SD) p value * Mean(SD) Mean(SD) Mean(SD) p value * Mean(SD) Mean(SD) Mean(SD) p value *
A 79.30 (3.76) 78.17 (3.98) 1.11 (1.71) 0.03 −121.61 (9.56) −123.11 (9.54) 0.50 (0.95) 0.50 −145.35 (4.40) −146.06 (4.53) 0.71 (1.01) 0.13
B 79.60 (3.80) 78.32 (3.51) 1.24 (1.53) 0.01 −118.03 (10.81) −118.62 (10.49) 0.59 (0.90) 0.30 −184.77 (4.78) −185.78 (4.69) 1.02 (1.43) 0.03
U3L 94.50 (18.22) 93.17 (18.00) 1.35 (1.85) 0.01 −114.22 (23.81) −115.06 (23.90) 0.84 (1.09) 0.05 −161.61 (30.85) −162.47 (31.08) 0.86 (1.17) 0.05
U3R 59.40 (12.04) 57.91 (11.74) 1.53 (2.02) 0.00 −113.27 (23.84) −114.19 (23.89) 0.92 (1.52) 0.07 −160.40 (31.08) −162.04 (30.93) 0.81 (1.35) 0.05
U6L 101.70 (19.56) 100.09 (19.27) 1.61 (1.81) 0.00 −96.34 (21.10) −97.36 (21.23) 1.01 (1.15) 0.01 −157.78 (30.22) −158.73 (30.46) 0.95 (1.32) 0.04
U6R 53.70 (4.68) 52.07 (4.49) 1.62 (1.75) 0.00 −99.79 (11.03) −100.96 (10.94) 1.17 (1.63) 0.02 −162.84 (4.69) −164.08 (4.75) 1.24 (1.50) 0.01
UI 79.50 (4.12) 78.23 (4.41) 1.31 (1.95) 0.02 −125.30 (9.91) −125.95 (9.59) 0.65 (1.24) 0.26 −167.39 (4.68) −168.17 (5.13) 0.77 (1.16) 0.10
L3L 93.70 (3.59) 92.34 (3.80) 1.31 (1.85) 0.01 −116.23(9.31) −117.05 (9.07) 0.82 (1.09) 0.06 −166.12 (5.10) −166.91 (5.51) 0.79 (1.17) 0.09
L3R 65.60 (4.50) 64.30 (4.49) 1.32 (1.81) 0.01 −115.70 (8.71) −116.49 (8.40) 0.78 (1.41) 0.14 −165.95 (5.14) −166.86 (5.59) 0.91 (1.36) 0.06
L6L 99.60 (19.25) 98.11 (18.89) 1.52 (1.62) 0.00 −94.98 (21.27) −95.85 (21.35) 0.87 (1.04) 0.03 −158.69 (30.34) −159.59 (30.56) 0.90 (1.34) 0.06
L6R 54.60 (10.95) 53.10 (10.54) 1.52 ((1.61) 0.00 −94.43 (20.69) −95.32 (20.84) 0.89 (1.25) 0.04 −158.77 (30.32) −159.65 (30.51) 0.89 (1.25) 0.05
LI 79.90 (4.06) 78.65 (3.76) 1.22 (1.66) 0.01 −123.08 (9.55) −123.60 (9.28) 0.52 (0.96) 0.45 −167.97 (4.90) −168.61 (5.22) 0.64 (1.01) 0.23
Pog 79.70 (3.70) 78.38 (3.32) 1.33 (1.64) 0.00 −118.15 (10.33) −118.99 (9.92) 0.84(0.99) 0.03 −202.68 (4.48) −203.33 (4.68) 0.65 (1.07) 0.22
Me 79.70 (3.61) 78.33 (3.24) 1.36 (1.68) 0.00 −115.09 (10.55) −116.04 (10.22) 0.95 (1.09) 0.02 −206.04 (4.63) −206.71 (4.77) 0.66 (1.10) 0.21
  1. *The difference was considered statistically significant if p < 0.05.