Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients of the two groups.

From: Relationship between frequency of hypoglycemic episodes and changes in carotid atherosclerosis in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Parameters Hypoglycemia group (n = 104) No-Hypoglycemia group (n = 170) P value
Mean number of hypoglycemic events (n/month/person) 0.93 ± 1.13 0.00 ± 0.00 <0.001
Age (years) 65.6 ± 9.4 62.6 ± 10.0 0.014
Gender (males) (%) 59 (57) 106 (62) 0.38
Body Mass Index 24.3 ± 3.7 25.5 ± 4.2 0.021
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130 ± 15 132 ± 15 0.24
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 10 75 ± 12 0.32
Current smoking 30 (22) 29 (21) 0.22
Hypertension 60 (58) 101 (59) 0.80
Dyslipidemia 61 (59) 114 (67) 0.19
Duration of diabetes (years) 18.6 ± 8.5 16.5 ± 8.5 0.053
HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 0.8 8.2 ± 1.1 0.011
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 62.2 ± 8.9 65.8 ± 12.3 0.011
C-peptide (ng/ml) 0.32 ± 0.24 0.44 ± 0.25 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.79 ± 0.76 5.10 ± 0.94 0.005
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.67 ± 0.66 2.90 ± 0.78 0.014
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.47 ± 0.42 1.39 ± 0.35 0.09
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.04 (0.69, 1.69) 1.21 (0.97, 1.74) 0.008
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 73.9 ± 17.6 81.7 ± 24.9 0.006
UAE (mg/g creatinine) 18.7 (7.1, 59.8) 19.7 (9.3, 88.2) 0.52
hsCRP (ng/dl) 380 (209, 911) 523 (264, 1340) 0.042
IL-6 (ng/dl) 1.5 (1.1, 2.2) 2.1 (1.4, 3.4) <0.001
ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 229 (193, 278) 228 (181, 265) 0.59
VCAM-1 (ng/ml) 736 (634, 920) 774 (662, 977) 0.22
Mean IMT-CCA (mm) 0.85 ± 0.20 0.83 ± 0.19 0.35
Right maximum IMT-CCA (mm) 1.10 ± 0.36 1.02 ± 0.34 0.073
Left maximum IMT-CCA (mm) 1.11 ± 0.35 1.10 ± 0.38 0.82
Use of oral glucose-lowering agents
Metformin 41 (39) 56 (33) 0.3
Sulfonylurea 21 (20) 11 (6) <0.001
Glinides 1(1) 20 (12) <0.001
Thiazolidinediones 9 (9) 15 (9) 1.00
α-glucosidase inhibitors 44 (42) 39 (23) 0.001
Use of anti-hypertensive agents
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 4 (4) 8 (5) 1.00
Angiotensin II receptor blockers 50 (48) 72 (42) 0.38
Calcium channel blocker 30 (29) 54 (32) 0.69
Diuretic drugs 10 (10) 15 (9) 0.83
α-adrenergic receptor antagonist 2 (2) 2 (1) 0.64
β-adrenergic receptor antagonist 2 (1) 1 (1) 0.56
Use of lipid-lowering agents
Statins 46 (44) 83 (49) 0.53
Ezetimibe 8 (8) 6 (4) 0.16
Fibrates 3 (3) 4 (2) 1.00
Use of anti-thrombotic agents
Antiplatelet agents 23 (22) 36 (21) 0.88
  1. Data are number (%) of patients or mean ± SD values or median (range) values. Differences in parameters between groups were analyzed by the Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon’s rank sum test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. CCA, common carotid artery; estimated glomerular filtration rate; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; IMT, intima-media thickness; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; IL-6, interleukin 6; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; UAE, urinary albumin excretion.