Table 1 Overview of results from inhibited insulin fibrillation and insulin dissection experiments.

From: High resolution spectroscopy reveals fibrillation inhibition pathways of insulin

  Insulin fibrillation in presence of inhibitor (cinhibitor: cinsulin 1:1) Dissection of mature insulin fibrils in presence of inhibitor (cinhibitor: cfibril 1:1)
Inhibitor non PhCN β-carot. Que DMSO β-carot. Que
Visual inspect. after fibrillation gel gel liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid
AFM long fibrils short fibrils aggr. aggr. aggr. aggr. & fibrils aggr. & fibrils
Raman Conformation β β α α β * *
Inhibitor detected non no yes yes no   
TERS Propensity [%] Propensity [%]
α 55 47 94 90 63 90 81
β 34 35 5 6 31 9 10
α, β mixture 11 18 1 4 6 1 9
Inhibitor detected non 6 3 no 2
Long term stability yes no° yes yes yes yes yes
Fibrillation after removal of inhibitor no no # # yesΔ # #
  1. Fibrillation conditions: pH 2.5, 70 °C, 2.5 h, dissection conditions: pH 2.5, 22 °C, 5 h, β-carot.: β-carotene, aggr.: aggregates, β: β-sheet structure, α: α-helix/unordered structure, *: not measured, : not identified due to overlapping bands, °: long fibrils developed within days, #: not possible since inhibitor could not be removed completely, Δ: short and long fibrils.