Table 4: Changes in the Serum biomarkers concentration diabetic subjects between 4 groups pre and post 16 weeks experiments.

From: Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Seed Consumption And Aerobic Training Improves Biomarkers Associated with Atherosclerosis in Women with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)

VariableStagePlacebo (PL) Mean ± SEMAerobic Training+ Placebo (AT + PL) Mean ± SEMPurslane Seeds (PS) Mean ± SEMAerobic Training+Purslane Seeds (AT + PS) Mean ± SEM
NF-κB1, ng/mLPre Post8.74 ± 0.78.87 ± 0.58.52 ± 0.58.79 ± 0.6
8.69 ± 0.2 6.7 ± 0.3$,β6.5 ± 0.4$,β5.3 ± 0.4$,β,,£
GLP1, ng/mLPre Post5.44 ± 0.34.38 ± 0.63.82 ± 0.33.43 ± 0.3
5.55 ± 0.45.78 ± 0.3$,β 4.93 ± 0.6$,β,5.77 ± 0.7$,β,,£
GLP1-R, ng/mLPre Post0.56 ± 0.0120.52 ± 0.0160.48 ± 0.0170.49 ± 0.011
0.59 ± 0.0180.69 ± 0.013$,β 0.67 ± 0.015$,β0.71 ± 0.014$,β,,£
TIMP-1, ng/mLPre Post10.72 ± 0.5610.47 ± 0.4710.22 ± 0.6810.86 ± 0.87
10.69 ± 0.66.98 ± 0.95$,†,β7.84 ± 0.44$,β, 5.12 ± 0.65$,β,,£
MMP2, ng/mLPre Post0.88 ± 0.020.87 ± 0.030.88 ± 0.020.86 ± 0.02
0.87 ± 0.030.70 ± 0.04$,†,β0.67 ± 0.03$,β0.55 ± 0.04$,β,,£
MMP9, ng/mLPre Post1.62 ± 0.051.59 ± 0.071.58 ± 0.081.60 ± 0.07
1.61 ± 0.041.08 ± 0.22$,†,β1.05 ± 0.15$,β0.55 ± 0.19$,β,,£
CRP, mg/mLPre Post8.72 ± 0.47.91 ± 0.67.85 ± 0.68.56 ± 0.7
8.83 ± 0.56.1 ± 0.3$,β 6.2 ± 0.1$,β 5.1 ± 0.3$,β,,£
CST3, ng/mLPre Post35.13 ± 4.3235.33 ± 3.5234.71 ± 4.6134.51 ± 3.22
35.75 ± 3.2526.25 ± 3.95$,β25.98 ± 2.44$,β20.09 ± 3.65$,β,,£
CTSS, ng/mLPre Post0.77 ± 0.020.76 ± 0.030.79 ± 0.060.79 ± 0.03
0.77 ± 0.020.64 ± 0.05$,β0.61 ± 0.02$,β0.29 ± 0.02$,β,,£
  1. $Denote significant differences from pre-test.
  2. βDenote significant differences from Placebo group.
  3. Denote significant differences from Aerobic Training+ Placebo.
  4. £Denote significant differences from Purslane Seeds group.
  5. p < 0.05 as compared to pre-test, Placebo, Aerobic Training+ Placebo, and Purslane Seeds groups.