Figure 3 : BOLD amplitude evoked by expected and unexpected gratings.

From: Local expectation violations result in global activity gain in primary visual cortex

Figure 3

(a) Here, trials are split up according to whether the gratings on the cued side had the expected or unexpected orientation. BOLD amplitude is shown separately for the cortical ROI in which the grating was processed (i.e. contralateral hemisphere) as well as for the ROI in the opposite (i.e. ipsilateral) hemisphere. Data in all panels are pooled over ‘cued left’ and ‘cued right’ trials. Results are shown separately for (b) V1, (c) V2, and (d) V3. Note that the BOLD response is higher contralateral to the cued grating than contralateral to the non-cued grating (i.e., ipsilateral to the cued grating), as a result of spatial attention. Further, the BOLD response is lower when the cued grating has the expected orientation (green bars) than when it has the unexpected orientation (red bars). (e) Effects of expectation (white bars) and spatial attention (gray bars) per visual region. Error bars indicate within-subject SEM. (See Supplementary Figure S3 for BOLD amplitude conditioned on whether the non-cued grating was congruent or incongruent with the expectation cue).