Figure 2

From: ENSO’s far reaching connection to Indian cold waves

Figure 2

(a) Significant OLR (W/m2) anomalies of the composite of TYPE1 cold wave events. (b,c and d) same as (a) but for significant eddy streamfunction (×106 m2 s−1; shaded) at 200 hPa, 500 hPa and 850 hPa levels respectively. (e) Horizontal temperature advection (shaded; ×10−6 °Ks−1) of mean temperature by mean winds at 850 hPa during TYPE1 events. Contours represent mean temperatures and mean wind at 850 hPa is shown by vectors (f) same as (e) but advection of mean temperature by anomalous wind (shaded). Mean temperature (contour) and anomalous winds (vectors) are also shown (g) same as (e) but advection of anomalous temperature by mean winds (shaded). 850 hPa temperature anomalies are shown as contours and mean winds as vectors (h) same as (e) but advection of anomalous temperature by anomalous winds (shaded). Contours represent temperature anomalies and vectors represent anomalous winds at 850 hPa (i) Significant wave activity flux anomalies at 200 hPa (vector; either zonal or meridional component is significant) and the streamfunction anomalies (shaded) for TYPE1 cold wave events. Significance is at 99% using two-tailed Student’s t-test. (Figure was created using a free software Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) version 2.1.a3 (http://cola.gmu.edu/grads/downloads.php)).