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Different capitalized letters in each row indicate a significant difference in element concentration between lichens (p ≤ 0.05) based on one-way ANOVA performed on the log10-transformed concentrations followed by post hoc SNK tests. CV refers to the coefficient of variance (defined as the standard deviation divided by the mean). XM refers to Xanthoria mandschurica (n = 5). PT refers to Physcia tribacia (n = 5). XE refers to Xanthoria elegans (n = 6). XPT refers to Xanthoparmelia tinctina (n = 5). PA refers to Physcia aipolia (n = 6). XPC refers to Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis (n = 10). SS refers to surface soil (n = 15). n = 37 for all lichens.