(a–c) After methylene blue injection (a) the popliteal lymph node was visualized (b, asterisk). The afferent lymphatic vessels ran parallel to the iscial vein and were ligated (b, arrow). Subsequently, the popliteal fat pad including lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic vessels was resected (c). (d–f) Stereomicroscopic images illustrating paw edema with regression between day 3 (d) and day 10 (f). (g) Acute lymphedema in the mouse hindlimb over 28 days. Four experimental groups (n = 3 per group) were measured twice during the phase of postsurgical swelling (colored arrows) using different volumetric techniques. At the end of the experiment, there was still significant paw swelling (n = 6; mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05). (h,i) HE-stained paw cross-sections with increased dermal thickness 3 days (h) after lymph node dissection. Ten days after surgery (i), the paw volume had markedly decreased. Scales = 1 mm. (j,k) Inserts of (h,i). Dermal lymphatic vessels were dilated on day 3 (j, arrowheads), but exhibited normal configuration on day 10 (k, arrowheads) as shown by means of immunohistochemical staining with LYVE-1. Scales = 140 μm.