Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

Figure 2

Partial phylogenetic tree of Pyron30 showing parsimony ancestral state reconstructions for the columella in Bufonidae.

The absence of the columella is a synapomorphy of Bufonidae (see section S2 of the Supplementary Information), with independent regains in a subclade of Atelopus, Frostius (not included in this analysis, but see text) and the sister clade of Nannophryne, followed by 10 independent losses.

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