Cell-induced deformations of substrates of different rigidities.
(A) Inverted greyscale fluorescence images of fibroblasts plated on substrates with E = 0.5, 16, and 64 kPa superimposed with vector maps of the surface displacement (red arrows). Fibroblasts are expressing paxillin-mCherry. Vector maps are obtained by tracking the displacements of 40 nm red fluorescent beads attached to the substrate surface3,9. (B) Histograms of the lengths of surface displacement vectors for substrates of different rigidities.