Differentiation of stem cells on substrates of different rigidities.
(A) Chemically induced adipogenesis (left column) and osteogenesis (right columns) of hMSCs cultured on silicone gel substrates with different elastic moduli. The brightness in the left column shows fluorescent staining of adipocytes after 14 days of differentiation. Red color in the right column corresponds to calcium staining after 14 days of differentiation. (B) Chemically induced osteogenesis (black) and adipogenesis (grey) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Left and right ordinates indicate the levels of differentiation to osteoblasts and adipocytes, respectively, (n = 3 wells; representative results from 3 independent experiments) normalized to the levels of differentiation of hMSCs plated on plastic surfaces. ***p < 0.01.