Figure 4 : XPS spectra of 5% Pd/C catalyst before and after the room temperature continuous flow Ullmann reaction.

From: Continuous flow room temperature reductive aqueous homo-coupling of aryl halides using supported Pd catalysts

Figure 4

Reaction conditions (for the 5% Pd/C after reaction: 0.1 M PhI and 0.25 M K2CO3 in MeOH:H2O 3:1, 0.3 mL.min−1, 2 h on stream).