Figure 4 : Effects of ASR on equilibrium frequencies of Parental Care (PC), Mate Guarding (MG), and Multiple Mating (MM) strategies when MM is initially common.

From: The evolution of monogamy in response to partner scarcity

Figure 4

The four panels (a–d) present four conditions with varying levels of parental care and cuckoldry rates. In all simulations the MM strategy is initially common at frequency 0.99, with MG and PC strategies at 0.005. Other parameter values are b = 0.3 and u = 0.9. See model description for details.