Figure 3 : Evolutionary dynamics of the three male mating strategies under a male-biased sex ratio.

From: The evolution of monogamy in response to partner scarcity

Figure 3

The panels present six conditions with varying cuckoldry risk and payoffs to parental care (a–f) where conception rate (b) is set to 0.3. Colors denote which strategy is favored at a given strategy frequency, with yellow indicating Mate Guarding (MG), red Multiple Mating (MM), and blue Paternal Care (PC). Arrows simulate evolutionary trajectories at contrasting mixed-strategy frequencies. Color combination yellow-blue indicates when both MG and PC strategies are simultaneously increasing in frequency.