Table 1 Forest and industrial plantations (oil-palm and pulpwood combined) area and change by country.

From: Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

Areas (in Ha) Borneo Kalimantan Sabah Sarawak Brunei
Total land area 73,719,011 53,342,225 7,396,621 12,400,501 579,664
Forest area in 1973 55,836,571 40,325,220 5,833,479 9,224,349 453,523
Non forest area in 1973 16,349,575 11,918,546 1,233,951 3,090,837 106,241
Forest area loss (Deforestation):
1973–2000 13,933,352 11,489,956 1,398,721 1,007,064 37,611
2000–2005 900,575 495,872 141,634 261,334 1735
2005–2010 1,969,608 1,140,535 204,522 621,352 3,199
2010–2015 1,847,258 1,228,226 117,498 497,443 4091
Total deforestation (1973–2015) 18,650,793 14,354,589 1,862,375 2,387,193 46,636
Intact forest area in 2015 20,531,822 16,798,025 1,647,149 1,756,476 330,172
Logged forest area in 2015 16,802,893 9,323,126 2,322,139 5,080,871 76,757
Total forest area in 2015 37,334,715 26,121,151 3,969,288 6,837,347 406,929
Area of plantations in 1973 132,809 0 128,047 4,762 0
Plantations expansion:
1973–1990 952,979 247,205 601,175 104,599 0
1990–1995 1,014,415 613,133 279,000 122,282 0
1995–2000 1,510,327 781,011 382,608 346,004 704
2000–2005 858,764 484,981 136,777 236,730 276
2005–2010 2,568,834 1,882,201 132,852 552,790 991
2010–2015 2,208,196 1,690,168 118,049 399,325 654
Total expansion (1973–2015) 9,113,515 5,698,699 1,650,461 1,761,730 2,625
Total Area of plantations in 2015 9,246,324 5,698,699 1,778,508 1,766,492 2,625
Total forest area converted to plantations within five years of clearance* (1973–2015) 4,537,052 2,113,815 1,086,468 1,334,168 2,601
Total forest area cleared more than five years before plantations were established (1973–2015) 1,798,114 1,623,829 71,555 102,720 10
Total forest area cleared within five years or between five and ten years before plantations were established 282,922 211,294 38,630 32,988 10
Total forest area converted to plantations during 1973–2015 6,968,935 4,276,910 1,212,447 1,476,957 2,621
Total area of land lacking forest cover in 1973 and converted to plantations (1973–2015) 1,784,453 1,258,184 243,740 282,526 3
Total scrub area (i.e. forests severely degraded by fire) converted to plantations (1973–2015) 1,469,717 1,402,115 48,310 19,292 0