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Figure 1

From: Long-Term Training with a Brain-Machine Interface-Based Gait Protocol Induces Partial Neurological Recovery in Paraplegic Patients

Figure 1


(A) Cumulated number of hours and sessions for all patients over 12 months. We report cumulated hours for the following activities: classic physiotherapy activities (e.g. strengthening/stretching), gait-BMI-based neurorehabilitation, one-to-one consultations with a psychologist, periodic measurements for research purposes and routine medical monitoring (vital signs, etc.). (B) Neurorehabilitation training paradigm and corresponding cumulated number of hours for all patients: 1) Brain controlled 3D avatar with tactile feedback when patient is seated on a wheelchair or 2) in an orthostatic position on a stand-in-table, 3) Gait training using a robotic body weight support (BWS) system on a treadmill (LokomatPro, Hocoma), 4) Gait training using an overground BWS system (ZeroG, Aretech). 5–6) Brain controlled robotic gait training integrated with the sensory support of the tactile feedback at gait devices (BWS system on a treadmill or the exoskeleton). (C) Material used for the clinical sensory assessment of dermatomes in the trunk and lower limbs: to evaluate pain sensitivity, examiner used a pin-prick in random positions of the body segments. Nylon monofilaments applying forces ranging between 300 to 0.2 grams on the skin, were used to evaluate patients’ sensitivity for crude to fine touch. Dry cotton and alcohol swabs were used to assess respectively warm and cold sensation. Vibration test was done using a diapason on patients’ legs bone surface. Deep pressure was assessed with an adapted plicometer in every dermatome.

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