Comparison of suction-flow velocities.
Three-dimensional flow velocities (colour scale on the left) and directions (small black arrowheads) are given for the midsagittal and midfrontal section planes of model 1 (a), model 2 (b) and model 3 (c) (Fig. 2e). Iso-contours of anterior-to-posterior flow velocity (2.5, 10 and 100 mm s−1) for the three models (see top or Fig. 2e for colour codes) are shown in (d,e). The displayed images are at an instant of about 3 ms before maximal flow velocity at the front of the mouth and represents equal states of expansion for models 1 and 2 (simulation time = 27 ms) versus model 3 (simulation time = 23 ms).