Table 1 Results of PERMANOVAs testing the cumulative egg release in tidal shifts, in constant immersion (atidal conditions) and at circadian cycles.

From: Temporal windows of reproductive opportunity reinforce species barriers in a marine broadcast spawning assemblage

  Source of variance df F P
Tidal condition (A) Sp 1 0.0014 0.9738
Ta 1 0.1088 0.8951
Ti (Ta) 4 22.5528 0.0001*
Sa 3 1.8161 0.1964
Sp x Ta 1 0.7522 0.4269
Sp x Ti (Ta) 4 10.6207 0.0001*
Sp x Sa 3 14.1226 0.0004*
Ta x Sa 3 0.4804 0.6953
Ti (Ta) x Sa 12 14.4957 0.0001*
Sp x Ta x Sa 3 0.4235 0.7485
Sp x Ti (Ta) x Sa 12 7.0750 0.0001*
Residual 336   
Atidal condition (B) Sp 1 9.4194 0.0023*
Sa 3 1.4363 0.2346
Sp x Sa 3 16.484 0.0001*
Residual 56   
Circadian Cycles (C) Sp 1 22.4222 0.0001*
Ti^ 3 10.2701 0.0001*
Ci 1 23.8428 0.0001*
Sp x Ti^ 3 16.1779 0.0001*
Sp x Ci 1 75.0505 0.0001*
Ti^ x Ci 3 19.4517 0.0001*
Sp x T^ x Ci 3 4.3833 0.0040*
Residual 112   
  1. Sp; species (Fucus guiryi and Fucus vesiculosus), Ta; tanks (tidal phase coincident or opposite that at the collection site in the field); Ti; tides (high tide between 8:00–12:00 h, 12:01–16:00 h and 16:01–20:00 h) and Sa; sampling time (8:30 h, 12:30 h, 16:30 h and 20:30 h), Ti^; tides (high tide between 8:00–12:00 h, 12:01–16:00 h, 16:01–20:00 h and no tidal) and Ci; circadian cycles (night and day sampling). Significant differences (P < 0.05) are noted with*.