(A) Sperm whale shallow foraging dive profile with four prey capture attempts, i.e. buzzes, indicated by red circles. The black line indicates the echolocation phase of the dive. (B–D) represent different parameters from the start of the buzz to the peak in normalized jerk, taken as a proxy for prey interception. (B) A detailed view of the click rate during the final buzz (encircled in black in (A)). ICIs, from 10 s before the buzz to the end of the buzz, are colour coded by their relative AOL (dBpp re max pp). The red line marks the estimated two-way-travel time (TWT) from the sound source to the presumed prey capture location calculated from the forward speed of the whale. Note the log scale on the TWT axis. (C) Normalized jerk signature during the same period and (D) distance between the front of the whale and the presumed prey interception location, derived from the forward swimming speed of the whale, calculated using the orientation-corrected depth rate method.