Figure 8 : Ground motion patterns in the near field of the Gorkha earthquake and waveforms at Kathmandu.

From: Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

Figure 8

A line source 60 km long is assumed with a seismic moment of 4.5 × 1020 Nm (Mw 7.7). The upper pattern and waveforms are due to fling step pulses produced by the near-field term. The lower pattern and waveforms correspond to rupture directivity pulses produced by the far- and intermediate-terms of the analytical solution31. The thick arrow in white indicates direction of rupture. The red star is rupture initiation point, and sky blue triangle denotes Kathmandu. The thick curves in waveforms represent total ground motions consisting of those from fault segments, shown by thin curves.