Figure 6 : Exercise, AICAR and rapamycin counteract muscle wasting in cancer cachexia and modulate an adequate autophagic flux level.

From: Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Treatments Counteract Cachexia by Modulating Autophagy in Colon Cancer

Figure 6

(A) In physiological conditions, a balance between autophagosome production and clearance maintains an adequate autophagic flux (red arrow) in the muscles, mirrored by basal levels of LC3bII (black dots) and p62 (green dots) expression. In cachectic muscles from C26-bearing mice (B), a strong accumulation of both LC3bII and p62 proteins points to an unbalanced autophagosome production/clearance ratio. This correlates with the pathophysiological features observed in cancer-related muscle wasting, including overexpression of Atrogin1 and Murf1 genes, as well as a decline in body weight (BD), muscle weight (MW), fiber size and muscle function. Spontaneous wheel running, or treatment with AICAR or rapamycin (C) counteracts cancer-related muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice and induces a decrease in both LC3bII and p62 accumulation. Atrogin1 and Murf1 gene expression was restored to the basal levels observed in healthy muscles. This is associated with increased body and muscle weight and improved muscle function.