Table 1: Descriptive data of study subjects by gastric cancer phenotype.

From: Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans

 Total (N = 1,580)Case (N = 449)Control (N = 1,131)p*
General characteristics
Number of participants (%)
 Male832 (52.6)296 (65.9)536 (47.3)<0.001
 Female748 (47.3)153 (34.0)595 (52.6) 
Age (years)53.0 ± 9.3155.4 ± 10.752.1 ± 8.4<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.7 ± 3.0423.6 ± 3.223.7 ± 2.90.342
Smoking behaviour (%)   <0.001
 Non-smoker815 (51.5)170 (37.8)645 (57.0) 
 Ex-smoker416 (26.3)131 (29.1)285 (25.2) 
 Current smoker313 (19.8)131 (29.1)182 (16.0) 
 Missing36 (2.2)17 (3.7)19 (1.6) 
Alcohol drinking behaviour (%)   0.004
 Current drinker916 (57.9)256 (57.0)660 (58.3) 
 Ex-drinker123 (7.7)46 (10.2)77 (6.8) 
 Non-drinker505 (31.9)130 (28.9)375 (33.1) 
 Missing36 (2.2)17 (3.7)19 (1.6) 
Regular exercise (%)   <0.001
 Yes746 (47.2)154 (34.3)592 (52.3) 
 No793 (50.1)279 (62.1)514 (45.4) 
 Missing41 (2.5)16 (3.5)25 (2.2) 
Helicobacter pylori infection (%)   <0.001
 Negative489 (30.9)38 (8.4)451 (39.8) 
 Positive1091 (69.0)411 (91.5)680 (60.1) 
Dietary intake
 Energy (kcal/day)1850.7 ± 638.42038.1 ± 694.21778.7 ± 600.5<0.001
 Fibre (g/day)20.4 ± 6.719.4 ± 6.520.8 ± 6.7<0.001
 Vegetables (g/day)382.4 ± 194374.3 ± 203.3385.6 ± 190.30.070
  Cruciferous183.1 ± 118.1196.4 ± 135.9178 ± 110.10.198
  Dark green41.2 ± 38.338.4 ± 36.842.3 ± 38.90.007
  Non-starchy335.8 ± 177.9331.4 ± 187.7337.6 ± 174.00.120
 Fruits (g/day)182.1 ± 201.6135.4 ± 166.9199.9 ± 210.8<0.001
  Citrus39.2 ± 55.330.7 ± 44.542.2 ± 58.4<0.001
 Sweets (g/day)30.1 ± 63.233.5 ± 91.628.8 ± 48.20.831
 Fat-foods (g/day)4.7 ± 4.84.6 ± 5.44.7 ± 4.60.348
  1. Numbers in parentheses are percentages; all other data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. Variables for dietary intake were adjusted for energy intake. *P-values denote the difference between cases and controls at the 95% confidence level.