Radiative forcing and ISM intensity variations.
(a) Boreal summer insolation intensities (summer solstice) between 30° and 44°N31. (b) Proxy for ISM precipitation variation in its northernmost location as determined in this study. Black dashed line indicates the Holocene evolution of the Latitudinal Insolation Gradient (LIG) between 30°N and 44°N. (c) Proxy for ISM precipitation intensity variation as recorded by speleothems in Oman14. (d) Proxy for ISM wind strength over the Arabian Sea15. (e) Moisture evolution in paleoenvironmental archives throughout monsoonal Asia (MA)7 and its out-of-phase relationship to the moisture evolution in arid central Asia (ACA)23.