a) Systolic blood pressure was examined before (Pre) and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after TAM treatment. * P < 0.05 versus Ctrl ( n = 8–11). ( b) Representative M-mode echocardiogram at 6 months after TAM treatment. Scale bars: 1 mm (gray), 100 msec (black). ( c) Cardiac function of the mice was evaluated by echocardiography before, 3 rd and 5 th day of TAM treatment, and at the indicated time point. ** P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. ( d) Kaplan-Meier curve showing survival rate of Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice after TAM treatment. § P < 0.001 versus Ctrl. ( e) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the heart failure related genes. ** P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. ( f) Hematoxylin and eosin staining and ( g) Masson and Trichrome’s staining of heart tissue from Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice at 1 year after TAM. Scale bars: 50 μm. ( h) Representative electron microscopic images of heart tissue from Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice at 1 year after TAM. Scale bar: 2.5 μm. ( i) Quantitation of the vacuoles. Vacuoles with more than 0.25 μm diameters were counted in 12 randomly selected fields (18.75 × 18.75 μm 2). “T-tubule” was defined as typical circular vacuoles nearby Z-bands. “Degenerated mitochondria” was defined as dilated vacuoles within the mitochondria. Undefined vacuoles were defined as “others”. ** P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. ( j) Representative images of the “T-tubule” and “Degenerated mitochondria”. Scale bar: 0.25 μm.