Figure 2 : Activation of β-catenin signaling in ECs causes heart failure.

From: Activation of endothelial β-catenin signaling induces heart failure

Figure 2

(a) Systolic blood pressure was examined before (Pre) and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after TAM treatment. *P < 0.05 versus Ctrl (n = 8–11). (b) Representative M-mode echocardiogram at 6 months after TAM treatment. Scale bars: 1 mm (gray), 100 msec (black). (c) Cardiac function of the mice was evaluated by echocardiography before, 3rd and 5th day of TAM treatment, and at the indicated time point. **P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. (d) Kaplan-Meier curve showing survival rate of Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice after TAM treatment. §P < 0.001 versus Ctrl. (e) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the heart failure related genes. **P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. (f) Hematoxylin and eosin staining and (g) Masson and Trichrome’s staining of heart tissue from Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice at 1 year after TAM. Scale bars: 50 μm. (h) Representative electron microscopic images of heart tissue from Ctrl and Bmx/CA mice at 1 year after TAM. Scale bar: 2.5 μm. (i) Quantitation of the vacuoles. Vacuoles with more than 0.25 μm diameters were counted in 12 randomly selected fields (18.75 × 18.75 μm2). “T-tubule” was defined as typical circular vacuoles nearby Z-bands. “Degenerated mitochondria” was defined as dilated vacuoles within the mitochondria. Undefined vacuoles were defined as “others”. **P < 0.01 versus Ctrl. (j) Representative images of the “T-tubule” and “Degenerated mitochondria”. Scale bar: 0.25 μm.