Table 2: The classification results of assigning tusk origin through the hybrid classification model with cut off at 55% for samples used to create the discriminate equation and a separate set of independent samples used to validate the technique.

From: Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence as a non-invasive method to distinguish between Asian and African elephant tusks

 Average probability (SD)PredictionAccuracyPrecision
AsianAfrican
Dependent study
 Asian (n = 72)0.24 (0.23)64 (89%)8 (11%)  
 African (n = 85)0.75 (0.14)6 (7%)79 (93%)91.0891.12
Independent study
 Asian (n = 30)0.16 (0.17)29 (97%)1 (3%)  
 African (n = 41)0.74 (0.13)3 (7%)38 (93%)94.3795.49
  1. SD = standard deviation.