Perfusion in the (a) brain and (b) PFC was assessed in spontaneously breathing Tsc2+/−, Cntnap2−/−, Shank3−/−, NL3R451C KI, BTBR T+tf/J, VPA-exposed mice, and corresponding wild-type controls. Sample sizes are provided in each bar. Error bars indicate standard deviations to visualize the spread of data for individuals. All the models were on a C57BL/6J background, except VPA (CD1) and Tsc2+/− (B6.129S4 mixed background). Wild-type littermates were used as controls, except for BTBR T+tf/J mice where age-matched C57BL/6J mice served as controls. KI, knock-in; PFC, prefrontal cortex; VPA, valproic acid; WT, wild-type.