LDL mimics EVs during TRPS and FCM.
(A) Commercially available human LDL analyzed by TRPS. Note that particles with different sizes were detected within the MV size range (100–800 nm) (measured on NP150 and NP300 nanopore membranes, black and gray bars, respectively). (B) FCM analysis of LDL particles conjugated to latex beads. Commercial LDL stained for apoB and apoCII, but not for the EV markers CD9 and CD63 (black filled histograms: antibody control, empty histograms: LDL). (C) LDL detection by FCM without bead conjugation at different dilutions. Note that the measured event number increases with the dilution, suggesting a swarm effect. (D) The signal obtained from commercial LDL is also partially sensitive to 0.1% Tx-100 at a physiological concentration (2 mg/mL) and in the 10 × diluted sample (0.2 mg/mL) as well (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney test).