Table 4 Comparison of the MMPI scores according to age group, hormonal therapy status, onset age, and sexual orientation in MtFs individuals (n = 54).

From: MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design

Age   Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si
<31 years (16) M ± SD 52.5 ± 8.3 53.6 ± 8.3 54.5 ± 10.7 55.9 ± 13.4 62.9 ± 9.8 60.4 ± 12.2 54.3 ± 13.6 55.0 ± 14.5 56.4 ± 14.9 51.4 ± 10.2
≥31 years (38) M ± SD 59.9 ± 11.3 57.0 ± 8.3 59.8 ± 9.4 58.4 ± 10.1 64.5 ± 8.9 57.1 ± 9.3 54.7 ± 11.1 55.5 ± 10.1 49.7 ± 8.4 52.0 ± 9.1
p-value   < 0.05 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
<31 years (16) % ≥ 65 18.8 12.5 12.5 31.3 50.0 37.5 25.0 18.8 18.8 18.8
≥31 years (38) % ≥ 65 28.9 26.3 21.1 23.7 55.3 15.8 18.4 13.2 5.3 7.9
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Hormonal therapy
Without (16) M ± SD 60.0 ± 11.7 56.7 ± 8.7 60.1 ± 11.4 59.5 ± 14.3 64.5 ± 7.1 59.9 ± 12.0 58.9 ± 15.7 59.1 ± 14.8 57.6 ± 13.3 55.2 ± 9.4
With (37) M ± SD 56.1 ± 10.7 55.7 ± 8.4 56.9 ± 8.8 56.5 ± 9.3 64.0 ± 9.9 57.2 ± 9.6 52.8 ± 9.4 53.7 ± 9.6 49.0 ± 8.7 50.4 ± 9.2
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05 NS
Without (16) % ≥ 65 37.5 25.0 31.3 37.5 62.5 25.0 43.8 25.0 18.8 18.8
With (37) % ≥ 65 18.9 21.6 10.8 18.9 51.4 21.6 10.8 10.8 5.4 8.1
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05 NS NS NS
Onset age
Early (31) M ± SD 56.3 ± 10.3 55.0 ± 8.7 55.7 ± 9.7 56.3 ± 11.6 63.3 ± 10.3 59.1 ± 11.4 55.4 ± 12.4 55.6 ± 13.3 53.8 ± 11.0 53.0 ± 11.2
Late (23) M ± SD 59.7 ± 11.7 57.2 ± 7.8 61.7 ± 9.6 59.6 ± 10.3 65.0 ± 7.2 56.7 ± 8.6 53.5 ± 11.0 55.0 ± 8.5 48.8 ± 10.5 50.2 ± 6.1
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05 NS
Early (31) % ≥ 65 22.6 19.4 16.1 25.8 48.4 29.0 22.6 19.4 9.7 19.4
Late (23) % ≥ 65 30.4 26.1 21.7 26.1 60.9 13.0 17.4 8.7 8.7 0
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05
Sexual orientation
Same biological sex (33) M ± SD 57.8 ± 11.6 56.1 ± 8.7 57.4 ± 10.6 57.5 ± 11.6 64.2 ± 9.8 60.1 ± 10.7 56.9 ± 12.5 56.3 ± 13.9 54.3 ± 11.6 53.1 ± 10.0
Others (18) M ± SD 56.8 ± 10.6 55.1 ± 7.8 58.4 ± 8.6 58.6 ± 9.9 63.9 ± 7.8 54.7 ± 8.1 51.4 ± 10.3 54.1 ± 5.7 47.6 ± 8.9 49.3 ± 8.4
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05 NS
Same biological sex (33) % ≥ 65 27.3 24.2 21.2 30.3 57.6 30.3 27.3 24.2 12.1 18.2
Others (18) % ≥ 65 16.7 16.7 11.1 16.7 50.0 5.6 11.1 0 5.6 0
p-value   NS NS NS NS NS NS NS < 0.05 NS NS
  1. M ± SD mean ± standard deviation, p p-value, bold values: p < 0.05.
  2. Hormonal therapy: ‘With’: individuals had received cross-sex hormones for a minimum of 3 months’ duration prescribed by a physician as a part of the sex reassignment procedure; ‘Without’: all other cases, corresponding to a minimal delay for expected physical changes.
  3. Onset age: ‘Early’: individuals with onset age beginning before puberty, ‘Late’: individuals with onset age beginning after puberty.
  4. Hs Hypochondriasis, D Depression, Hy Hysteria, Pd Psychopathic Deviate, Mf Masculinity/Femininity, Pa Paranoia, Pt Psychasthenia, Sc Schizophrenia, Ma Hypomania, and Si Social Introversion.