Figure 4 | Scientific Reports

Figure 4

From: Effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior in mice

Figure 4

ROS production in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

ROS production was presented as relative of the control group. (a) The hippocampi of chronic unpredictable mild stress exposed mice displayed over-production of ROS when compared to the control group (F1, 16 = 42.22, P < 0.0001, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5) and compared to the hydrogen-rich water group (F1, 16 = 10.60, P = 0.0050, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5). The stress-induced excessive production of ROS in hippocampi could be successfully inhibited by the antioxidative hydrogen-rich water as shown in the comparison between hydrogen-rich water + stress group and stress group (F1, 16 = 10.60, P = 0.0050, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5). (b) Prefrontal cortexes of chronic unpredictable mild stress exposed mice displayed over-production of ROS when compared to the control group (F1, 16 = 96.18, P < 0.0001, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5) and compared to hydrogen-rich water group (F1, 16 = 65.54, P < 0.0001, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5). The stress-induced excessive production of ROS in prefrontal cortexes could be successfully inhibited by the antioxidative hydrogen-rich water as shown in the comparison between hydrogen-rich water + stress group and stress group (F1, 16 = 65.54, P < 0.0001, post hoc ***P < 0.0001, n = 5, 5, 5, 5). Representative ROS photographs from hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were shown in (a–d) and (f–i) respectively. No significant differences observed among the control, hydrogen-rich water and hydrogen-rich water + stress groups. Data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons post hoc test. Error bars represent s.e.m.

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