(a) XPS spectra of titanium surface coated with CS-(HA-LDc)3 coating. (b) XPS N 1s spectra of CS-(HA-LDc)n (left) and Ti 2p3/2&1/2 spectra of CS-(HA-LDc)n (right). (c) Contact angles of the titanium surface with different deposition cycles. (d) AFM images of uncoated titanium surface and Ti discs with coatings. (a1) (a2) control, (b1)(b2) CS-(HA-LDc)5, a2 and b2 show the high-resolution image.