Figure 1 : Microbial community analysis of maternal faeces (M), placenta (PL), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum (C), meconium (Me) and infant faeces (INF) samples.

From: Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid

Figure 1

(A) Relative abundances of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at phylum level. Relative abundances of OTUs accounting for >1% of the total bacterial community are shown for each sample. OTUs representing ≤1% are grouped as “other phylum”. (B) Diversity of the most abundant bacterial taxa identified at family level. Taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA sequences was carried out by use of a naïve Bayesian classifier, the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier with a cut-off 50% of homology. (C) Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) plot based on the unweighted UniFrac distance matrix. Individual samples of maternal faeces (pink), placenta (yellow), amniotic fluid (red), colostrum (light blue), meconium (dark blue), and infant faeces (green) are shown as single points. Significant differences were reported between groups of samples (ANOSIM = 0.6805 & P = 0.001 with 999 permutations). (D) UPGMA Cluster analysis using Pearson similarity coefficient performed on PCR-DGGE analysis fingerprints from all samples. Maternal faeces (pink), placenta (yellow), amniotic fluid (red), colostrum (light blue), meconium (dark blue) and infant faeces (green) samples are shown as single pattern profiles. (E) Number of trimmed and filtered sequences obtained by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The numbers refer to individual mother-infant pairs. The horizontal line reflects the average number of sequences for all samples. (F) Alpha-diversity Box-whisker plots of taxa richness (Chao1 index) and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) in samples analysed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The letters above the bars indicate results of Tukey HSD test following a significant 1-way ANOVA. Mean values not sharing the same letters are significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). (G) Box-whisker plots Richness (Chao index) and diversity (Shannon index) of the microbiome in different sample types based on the PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The letters above the bars indicate results of Tukey HSD test following a significant 1-way ANOVA. Mean values not sharing the same letters are significantly different from each other (p < 0.05).