Relationships of Kobresia pygmae’s LU dates to mean temperature (T-30d) and precipitation (Pr-30d) 30 days before mean LU date during 1989–2010 in (a,b) Qumalai and (c,d) Henan. (Inset) The annual change trends of (a,c) T-30d and (b,d) Pr-30d during 1980–2013 based on time-series data of daily mean temperature and precipitation from the stations of China Meteorological Administration. The data were separated into two groups with Pr-30d < 30 mm (green color) and Pr-30d > 30 mm (red color) (both T-30d were less than 5 °C across years and sites), according to the threshold for the specific pattern at the upper limit of K. pygmae in Damxung (Fig. 3e,f). Solid trend lines are statistically significant at P < 0.05, and dash trend lines are for weak correlations at P < 0.10.