Relationships of leaf unfolding (LU) to mean temperature (T-60d, T-30d) and precipitation (Pr-60d, Pr-30d) of 60/30 days before mean LU dates for (a, b) Androsace tapete, (c, d) Stipa capillacea, and (e, f) Kobresia pygmae across altitudes in Damxung during 2007–2013. (Inset) Similar patterns were found in the transplants from a high altitude to a low altitude. (e,f) The grey-shaded vertical columns indicated the threshold of T-30d < 5 °C and Pr-30d > 30 mm for the specific pattern at the upper limit of K. pygmae. Solid trend lines are statistically significant at P < 0.05, and dash trend lines are for weak correlations at P < 0.10. Statistical differences in relationships of LU vs climatic factors among experimental treatments are found in Table 1.