PKA and Epac knockdown abolished cAMP-induced axonal branching and elongation, respectively.
(a) Experimental paradigms for the axonal morphology assay. (b) Representative images of cultured granule cells immunostained for tau (green) and PAC (blue). Actin was labeled with rhodamine phalloidin (red). Scale bar = 50 μm. (c) Bar graphs indicating the number of branches. **p < 0.01 vs. PAC w/o light and ##p < 0.01 vs. PAC/scPKA + light; Steel-Dwass test after Kruskal-Wallis test, n = 20–30 cells for each group. (d) Bar graphs indicating the length of the primary axon. **p < 0.01 vs. PAC w/o light and ##p < 0.01 vs. PAC/scPKA + light; Tukey’s test after a one-way ANOVA, n = 20–30 cells for each group.